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Gateway

Gateway It is very intelligent device in computer network. It can operate at any network layer in OSI model. In OSI model the most gateway operate at application layer and transport layer but it can operate at network layer as well as session layer. In short it can function at all seven layers of the OSI model. It can translate information between data formats or network with different protocols or architecture that’s why its work is complex than router. A gateway is a system that is capable of joining together two networks which use different protocols such as Ethernet and Token Ring. It translates one protocol into another protocol that’s why it is called protocol converter. In computer server gateway acts as firewall and proxy server. A firewall is used to remove unwanted traffic and outsiders off a private network. A proxy server is software that “sits” between programs on your...

Internetworks

Introduction to internetworks The term internetwork consists of ‘inter’ and ‘working’. An inter-network consists of two or more networks connected by intermediate networking device. An example of internetworking is internet. It connects two or more local area network by wide area network. It uses the application of transport layer such as Transmission control protocol which transfer data in reliable way and sometime use user datagram protocol which do not provide reliable delivery.An internetwork is a collection of different networks connecting by using intermediate networking devices such as routers, bridges or gateway devices that functions as a single large network. Internetworking refers to the industry, products, and procedures that meet the challenge of creating and administering internetworks. It can be complex network because it involves connecting networks that use different protocols. In this figure token ring in local area network is communicate with some other computer on Ethernet at local area...

Transmission Media and its types

Introduction to transmission media The transmission media is nothing but the physical media that carries the information from sender to receiver. In the OSI Model the first layer it means physical layer is dedicated to the transmission media. The purpose of Physical layer is to transport a raw bit stream from one machine to another. Transmission media is the medium through which we can send data from one place to another. There are different types of cables and waves to transmit data and is transmitted through electrical or electromagnetic signals. Transmission media is also known as communication channel. Types of Transmission Media There are two types of transmission Media such as Guided Media or Wired Media or Bound Transmission Media Unguided Media or Wireless Media or Unbound Transmission Media Wired Media This media is also known as guided media or bounded Transmission media. It is used for point to point communication directions. The signal...

IP address with Classes

IP Address The term IP address means Internet Protocol. An IP address is an identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network by numerical label assigned to each device or computer. It is a binary number that uniquely identify computer or device. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods used as in the source address and destination address fields of the IP header. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 198.126.11.24 could be an IP address. It can be private or public, private use for use a local area network within the range of addresses for Class A, B, and C addresses are some reserved addresses and public addresses are Class A, B, and C addresses that can be used to access devices in wide area network.  If two networks are using the same private...

OSI MODEL with its layer

Introduction to OSI model The OSI model is developed by ISO (International Standard organization). It deals with systems that are open to communication with other system that’s why it is also called as ISO – OSI reference model. The ISO is the organization and OSI is not a protocol it is a model for designing an architecture that is flexible and robust. It allows communication between all types of computer system. An OSI model has seven layers. These are   In a single machine each layer provides service to upper layer and use service from below layer. For example Layer 6 provides service to layer 7 and use service from layer 5. This processes that communicate at given layer is known as peer to peer process. The First three layers is known as network support layer i.e. Physical, Data link, Network because they deal with physical aspect...

Types of network

Types of network A network consists of components such as hardware and software in larger and smaller distances. It is a system which allows communication and data exchange between users. The network size can be expressed with geographic area and they occupy the number of computers that are the part of network. Here are various types of network based on size: LAN (Local Area Network) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) WAN (Wide Area Network) Wireless Network Internetwork LAN (Local Area Network) A local area network is used in small physical area such as office, industry, single buildings or campus within a few kilometers in size. It is basically used to multiple computers in offices to share resources and exchange information. It consists of a cable to which all machines are attached. A traditional LAN run at speeds of 10Mbps to 100Mbps but new LAN operates up to 10Gbps. LAN provides a very useful ways of...

Introduction to Computer Network

Definition of Computer Network A Computer network is a telecommunication network that consists of a collection of computers to allow communication and data exchange between users. Data is transferred in the form of packets. The interconnection of computer consists of networking hardware, cable and wireless media. A device is said to be networked device when a process in one device is able to exchange information with a process in another device. Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. A node can be personal computer, phones, server and network hardware.   Characteristics of a computer network It can create files and store them in one computer and access those files from the other computer(s) connected to it. The resources can be share from one computer to another. It connect a printer, scanner or fax machine to one computer within the network and let...

Network Topology and its types

Introduction to Network Topology The term topology means arrangement of the various elements network including its nodes and connecting lines. The structure of a network topology may be logically and physically. Logically topology represents how data flow with in a network. The network of physical topology is geometric layout of workstation refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Types of Topology Here are several physical topologies Bus topology Star topology Ring topology Mesh topology Tree topology Bus topology A bus topology consists of main run of cable with a terminator at each end. Each node is connected to a linear cable. In bus signal is travel in both direction from source to recipient. If the recipient address matches the machine address the data is accepted otherwise the machine rejects the data. Bus topology is basically used in local area network. Types of...