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Gateway

Gateway It is very intelligent device in computer network. It can operate at any network layer in OSI model. In OSI model the most gateway operate at application layer and transport layer but it can operate at network layer as well as session layer. In short it can function at all seven layers of the OSI model. It can translate information between data formats or network with different protocols or architecture that’s why its work is complex than router. A gateway is a system that is capable of joining together two networks which use different protocols such as Ethernet and Token Ring. It translates one protocol into another protocol that’s why it is called protocol converter. In computer server gateway acts as firewall and proxy server. A firewall is used to remove unwanted traffic and outsiders off a private network. A proxy server is software that “sits” between programs on your...

Internetworks

Introduction to internetworks The term internetwork consists of ‘inter’ and ‘working’. An inter-network consists of two or more networks connected by intermediate networking device. An example of internetworking is internet. It connects two or more local area network by wide area network. It uses the application of transport layer such as Transmission control protocol which transfer data in reliable way and sometime use user datagram protocol which do not provide reliable delivery.An internetwork is a collection of different networks connecting by using intermediate networking devices such as routers, bridges or gateway devices that functions as a single large network. Internetworking refers to the industry, products, and procedures that meet the challenge of creating and administering internetworks. It can be complex network because it involves connecting networks that use different protocols. In this figure token ring in local area network is communicate with some other computer on Ethernet at local area...

Transmission Media and its types

Introduction to transmission media The transmission media is nothing but the physical media that carries the information from sender to receiver. In the OSI Model the first layer it means physical layer is dedicated to the transmission media. The purpose of Physical layer is to transport a raw bit stream from one machine to another. Transmission media is the medium through which we can send data from one place to another. There are different types of cables and waves to transmit data and is transmitted through electrical or electromagnetic signals. Transmission media is also known as communication channel. Types of Transmission Media There are two types of transmission Media such as Guided Media or Wired Media or Bound Transmission Media Unguided Media or Wireless Media or Unbound Transmission Media Wired Media This media is also known as guided media or bounded Transmission media. It is used for point to point communication directions. The signal...

Boolean Algebra and its Types

Introduction to Boolean Algebra Boolean algebra was developed by George Boole in 1854. He developed an algebra that was used for designing logic circuits in computer system. According to George Boole symbols can be used to represent the structure of logic in computer arithmetic. It also deals with law or rules that’s why it is also known as laws of Boolean algebra. It is used to simplify Boolean expressions which represent combinational logic circuits in computer system. The law of Boolean algebra is used to reduce and simplify a complex Boolean expression and reduce the number of gates required. The variables used in Boolean algebra have truth values such as true and false and logic values such as logic 0 and logic 1. It used with binary operation such as multiplication (.), addition (+) and unary operation (‘) . There are various types of laws of Boolean...

Logic Family and its types

Introduction to Logic family In logic family the switching characteristics of the semiconductor device such as diode, CMOS, transistor and MOSFET all are involve in the operation of digital circuit. There are various types of digital circuit are combined in a single chip or integrated circuit known as digital Integrated circuits or Digital Ics. The Digital Integrated circuits are required to make digital system or whole system. The term Integrated circuits means electronic circuit constructed on a single chip by use of such type of semiconductor devices and group of circuit give specific circuit called logic family. The Integrated circuit has small size and it is more reliable, inexpensive than other circuits.  Logic family is defined in one line that circuit arrangement or configuration of circuit element in a special manner is called logic family. Types of Logic Family The logic family can be classified...

Memory Management and its Technique

Definition of Memory Management The term Memory management means managing computer memory. In other words it provides a way to keep track of allocate portions of memory to programs at their request, and freeing it for reuse when no longer needed. It is the functionality of an operating system which handles or manages primary memory and check how much memory is required to be allocated to processes. It also keep track of some memory gets freed or unallocated and correspondingly it updates the status. It provides protection by using two registers, a base register and a limit register. The base register is used to hold the smallest legal physical memory address. The limit register is used to specifies the size of the range. For example, if the base register holds 30000 and the limit register is 120900, then the program can legally access all addresses from 30000 through...

Flip Flop and its Types

Introduction to Flip Flop A flip flop can be defined as a circuit capable of storing one bit of information either 1 or 0 based on inputs applied on it. The basic memory element used to store one bit of information in sequential circuit known as flip flop. It is also known as latch, bistable multivibrator and toggle circuit. Flip flop has logic 0 and 1 as two stable states. Clock is basically used to control flip flops. It can be classified into two categories: Positive Clocking Negative Clocking Positive Clocking If flip flop changes its state at high clock pulse then flip flop is said to have positive clocking. Negative Clocking If flip flop changes its state based on applied input then flip flop is said to have negative clocking. Features of flip flop A flip flop has number...

VI editor

Introduction to VI editor The term VI stands for visual editor. It was developed by Bill Joy in 1976 at the University of California at Berkeley. The term editor means program that is used to create and modify the contents of a file. A ‘VI’ editor is designed to deal with text files. It is a classic screen based editor rather than line editor that allows user to see some part of his file on terminal screen. It is a full screen editor and allow the user to view and modify character and lines by simply typing at the current cursor position. Operation Modes: It has two modes of operation such as: Command mode Insert mode Escape mode Command mode                                                                                      When ‘vi’ editor is started it is in command mode first. It enables you to perform administrative tasks such as saving or...